Papers and Reports

All over the world, people are re-evaluating the old ways of “doing business,” in favor of longer-range planning. This is the movement known as “sustainability,” and its experts tell us that we can go much faster and much farther, targeting “radical resource efficiency.” In many cases, industry has embraced these concepts more easily than municipalities. German industries are subscribing to a concept called Factor Four, wherein they commit to doubling production while halving the amount of raw materials and energy used. We begin with an explanation of basic sustainability concepts, highlight international and national frameworks and conclude with a list of sustainability-based actions that can be cost-effectively retrofitted into an existing wastewater treatment facilities operation.