Technical Papers

Membrane processes are relatively new when compared to conventional treatment processes such as granular media filtration and ion-exchange (IX) deionization (DI) in power plant water treatment. Membrane processes generally include microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), hyperfiltration (HF) or reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED)/electrodialysis reversal (EDR), and electrodeionization (EDI). Newer developments include forward osmosis (FO), membrane distillation, and electrodialysis metathesis (EDM). These membrane processes are used to remove solids (suspended, colloidal, and dissolved) from water. However, the membrane contactor (MC) is another membrane process used to separate gases from water.