Papers and Reports

Federal and state drinking water regulations, such as the Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LTlESWTR) and the California Cryptosporidium Action Plan, mandate optimization of clarification processes (pretreatment) prior to filtration. Optimization of the pretreatment process will usually yield higher filter effluent quality, longer filter runs, and minimize waste of backwash water and filter-to-waste. There are a variety of alternative clarification technologies available for drinking water treatment, including but not limited to: conventional sedimentation basins, contact or absorption clarifiers, solids contact clarifiers, tube settlers, parallel plate settlers, Superpulsator[TM], dissolved air flotation (DAF), AquaDAF[TM], and Actiflo[R].