Per‐ and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a recalcitrant group of chemicals and can be found throughout the environment. They often collect in wastewater systems with virtually no degradation prior to environmental discharge. Some PFAS partitions to solids captured in wastewater treatment which require further processing. Of all the commonly applied solids treatment technologies, incineration offers the only possibility to completely destroy PFAS. Little is known about the fate of PFAS through incineration, in particular, for the systems employed in water resource recovery facilities (WRRF). This review covers available research on the fate of PFAS through incineration systems with a focus on sewage sludge incinerators. This research indicates that at least some PFAS destruction will occur with incineration approaches used at WRRFs. Furthermore, PFAS in flue gas, ash, or water streams used for incinerator pollution control may be undetectable. Future research involving full‐scale fate studies will provide insight on the efficacy of PFAS destruction through incineration and whether other compounds of concern are generated.
- Thermal processing is the only commercial approach available to destroy PFAS.
- Thermal degradation conditions required for destruction of PFAS during incineration processes are discussed.
- Fate of PFAS through water resource recovery facility incineration technologies remains unclear.
- Other thermal technologies such as smoldering combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and hydrothermal liquefaction provide promise but are in developmental phases.