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Author      Title/Abstract      

Suggested Methods for Calculating and Interpreting Calcium Carbonate Saturation Indexes
Author: Douglas Merrill, Russell W. Lane, Rudolpho A. Pisigan, George C. Richards, John R. Rossum, Larry P. Scanlan, J. Edward Singley, Greene R. Whitney
Date: 7/190
Reprinted from Journal AWWA, July 1990

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) saturation indexes are commonly used to evaluate the scale-forming and scale-dissolving tendencies of water. Assessing these tendencies is useful in corrosion control programs and in preventing CaCO3 scaling in piping and equipment, such as water distribution system appurtenances, industrial heat exchangers, or domestic water heaters.

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