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Author      Title/Abstract      

More Efficient Water Use in New Homes and an Aggressive Retrofit Program Reduces Water Demand and Wastewater Flow
Author: William O. Maddaus, Denny S. Parker, Alfred J. Hunt
Presented at the 1982 Annual Conference, American Water Works Association, Miami, Florida, May 1982

This paper presents data from an inside residential water use study of homes with and without the low-flush toilets, low-flow showerheads, and low-flow lavatory faucets currently required in new construction in California and other states. The study found that water savings of 30 gallons per day (gpd) in homes with an average of 3.5 occupants was possible. This savings is equivalent to 8.5 gallons per capita per day (gcd). Per capita water use was shown to decline with increasing household size because of shared common water uses. An aggressive retrofit program was recommended to make older homes more water efficient because, if used in conjunction with other water saving methods, inside residential water use and wastewater flow would be reduced by about 10 percent.